If possible, is part of the global electricity generation market, specifically within the energy production and stabilization systems of weak networks or distributed systems.

The result of the use of the IONICA® ELECTRICAL CENTRAL is a stable commercial model and contrasted in prototype, formed by a renewable source, with an external DC / AC conversion and optional storage system or the regulation system with the network. In this way, the model can be applied indistinctly to:

  • Great localized powers.
  • Individual small-scale delocalized projects (homes, isolated centers of the network, etc.)
  • Stabilization of networks with wide penetration of renewables (replacing diesel support engines)
  • Maritime market (platforms and boats)
  • Railway sector
  • Centers for recharging electric vehicles
  • Parking lots

The Ionic Electric Generator® is intended as a linkable COMPLEMENT without power limitation being  power generation composed of enriched CELDAS REDOX® TYPE, which correct the behavior of TAFEL and allow the controlled dissolution of the electrodes using as a single medium sea water or water and common salt in proportions that can be from 0.4% salinity per liter.

With this new element of electricity, it is expected in the short term to implement an objective and proven solution (Bureau Veritas) in the international market for clean energy, which allows a maximum renewable integration in the network serving as a support vector, providing 100% renewable and sustainable energy in the moments of low renewable incidence, or stabilizing the peaks of the network serving as the basis of the system. For example, wind farms. Also for the Electric self-consumption.

When two different metals, which have different reactivities, are immersed in the same conducting solution which we call electrolyte and are electrically connected to each other, we will have a flow of electrons from the most active or anodic metal to the most noble metal or Cathodic, leaving the anodic material with an electron deficiency. The anode is composed of an active metal and the cathode by a noble metal. At the negative electrode (anode) is where corrosion takes place.

Inside the electricity generating cell is a sacrificial anode of a metal whose energy is to be recovered through the corrosion that is to be produced inside said cell in a controlled manner, with the dissolution of the metal anode According to the Law of Faraday.

This invention potentiates in closed circuit the kinetics inside the generating cell creating the optimal conditions for the electrochemical process to gather all the necessary elements of the electrolyte inside the cell to keep the process constant, in particular the contact and renewal of The chemical elements dissolved with the metals and thus avoid the voltage drop caused by the deviations to the behavior of Tafel, which arise when the speed of the reaction happens to be controlled by a slower stage in the process sequence due to the polarization By concentration on the surfaces of the cathode and anode that produces lowering of the electrical voltage and arises by deficiency in the supply of reagents that take part in the electrochemical reaction that would take place inside this generating cell, reason why the speed of the Reaction would be often limited as a result of the rapidity of the reagents reaching the surface of the electrode or the rate at which the reaction products diffuse into the solution, due to the Reagents or excess products

There are behaviors that considerably reduce this corrosion and consequently made the electrical production usable in this electrolytic context due to polarization unfeasible. By the technique developed in this invention such behaviors are corrected by solving the problem.


Need of the project. Background

The development of humanity has always been linked to the domain of natural elements that allow them to source the energy resources needed for the different processes that require their own subsistence and comfort.

As we have developed new technologies that accompany us in our social and industrial development, we have had to locate energy sources and develop processes that provide the necessary resources for the proper functioning and sustainability of these new industries.

Already in this 21st century, the growing world population and the increasing demand for resources are leading us to a peak where the current fossil-based systems of electricity supply are beginning to be shortages due to lack of raw material or Price increase.

To this must be added the global awareness of the negative effect that these energy systems are causing on our environment, which can result in frankly serious problems, if not in our generation, yes in future generations.

With this scenario, the nations are beginning to invest heavily in the investment in new energy facilities that use renewable sources of resources, thereby reducing the enormous dependence on scarce fossil resources and contributing to a sustainable development in terms of management Of energy resources is concerned.

However, two issues restrain the expansion of this type of technology, on the one hand the high investment ratios per kWh installed, and on the other hand, the difficult integration of these systems, mostly variable since they depend on the existence of the resource on time Natural (existence of sun, wind, waves, etc.), with electricity distribution networks, especially those networks that are weaker due to their small size.

The first of the problems has been covered for several years, with significant R & D & I efforts being made in the large and small companies linked to the different renewable energy industries, in order to shorten the expenses necessary for the initial investment and the maintenance and durability of This teams. With this, the costs of the energy produced by these technologies are gradually getting closer to the average electricity market prices, avoiding the impact that these technologies could have on the local, national or even international electricity system .

Forecast of the evolution of the costs of energy produced by various sources of renewable energy
 

 

Previsión de la evolución de los costes de la energía producida por diversas fuentes de energías renovables

The second problem is only possible to cover by investing serious efforts to investigate and / or improve energy storage systems that allow, on the one hand, to cushion the sudden falls in the production of these equipment, and on the other to store the overproduction of the devices In low demand curves, pouring into the grid in times of low production and increased demand. Apart from what has been said, it will be necessary to equip these technologies with intelligent systems that can read the real needs of the network at all times, causing the network to have the least possible impact, in fact helping, if possible, to cover eventualities in the network.

It should not be forgotten that one of the major advantages of a correct and sustainable proliferation of this type of energy technologies is the offshoring of production, or what is the same, favoring the existence of a very large number of micro-plants that allow To alleviate the effect of the lack of localized point resources.

However, the latter, which a priori seems an advantage, seems difficult to manage by the network managers, by including in the algorithm hundreds of new variables that are difficult to control, which would imply a further weakening of the network.

That is why, to date, one of the major problems blocking the extensive use of these technologies is precisely that only a certain percentage of penetration of renewable power plants is allowed, in comparison to others that give greater stability to the network , Hydraulic, coal, fuel, natural gas, etc.). This is accentuated in smaller networks.

Given this, it becomes vital to study and advance in the field of energy storage, which, combined with power plants based on renewable resources, allow greater stability of the same and greater control of the energy that is sent to the network , Increasing the percentage of penetration of these technologies and thus favoring the improvement of the sustainability of these resources and a much lower environmental impact.

  1.1.2 Current energy storage systems

Currently there are different systems in the market that allow a greater or lesser degree of storage of the generated energy. We are going to proceed to analyze the different models currently available, evaluating the pros and cons of these technologies, in order to advance the competitive advantages that the CENTRAL ELECTRON IONICA® project will offer with respect to the rest.

  A. Electrochemical processes

to. Batteries.

I. These systems usually store electrical current in DC, requiring an AC / DC interconnection which results in a greater complexity and cost of the system by incorporating power electronics, which can even exceed 25% of the cost of the entire storage system.
Ii. Major problems in cost, volume, work cycles and shelf life
Iii. Limited storage capacities, exponentially increasing cost by increasing storage capacity
Iv. Commercial utilities for low-power devices (electronic equipment, computers, etc.)
V. Huge maintenance costs

B. Redox flow batteries

 Designed for small powers

Ii. Short service life compared to the useful life of power plants

Iii. High investment and maintenance costs

Iv. Still in development

  C. Fuel Cells

I. High investment and maintenance costs
Ii. Require augmentation devices by providing intermittent power
Iii. It is not possible to install it in all types of projects, they have numerous technical restrictions
Iv. Require a logistics of the chosen fuel
V. Low energy yields, close to 20%
saw. Potential environmental effects
 
B. Electrical

to. Condensers

I. The field of application is not intended to be covered by the CENTRAL ELECTRÓNICA IONICA® project
B. Magnetic energy storage with superconductors

I. Due to the energy absorbed by the cooling system and to the costs of superconducting materials, SMES are used for short-term energy storage, with the most common application being the improvement of wavelength in public power distribution networks Electricity, typically the neutralization of voltage gaps and micro cuts.

C. Mechanics

to. Compressed air

I. The problem with these compressed air energy storage facilities (CAES) is that they are considerably more complex in practice than in theory. When it is compressed, the gas heats up, which limits the amount of air that can be pumped underground without overheating to be safely stored. In addition, the longer the warm air is left in a place, the more heat, which is an important part of the incoming energy that is dispersed through the walls of the cave. And when it is released again, the expanding air cools.
Ii. They present for now a very low performance, and the problems derived from its complexity in the installation have not yet been solved
 

  B. Inertial batteries

I. The steering wheel has to turn very fast, but be strong enough to resist mechanically. Steering storage systems are marketed as uninterruptible power supplies that can deliver moderate amounts of power in seconds or minutes, but are not competitive enough for longer storage times, such as those needed by power companies.

Ii. Significant investment and maintenance costs


 V. Given the enormous costs implicit in these systems, it is decided to centralize all the storage of a network in a single strategic point, so it does not suppose a delocalized but centralized storage, which reverts in overloads of the distribution and transport electric lines saw. The fluid that is transported both in the drive, storage and production is usually fresh water, so an associated source of production is required, to cope potential leaks. This source is usually a water desalination plant, which adds more costs to the system, both in investment as in maintenance and production.

Vii. Risk of major environmental damage in the event of major leaks or breakages.

Viii. The performance of the system adds up to the performance of the drive pump motor, friction losses in the drive pipes, leaks and evaporative losses in the storage system, losses in production pipelines and system performance Turbine-generator. Approximately 60% of the system's performance under design conditions, which is worsened under conditions involving a shift in the curve of the pumping equipment, as well as adding the replenishment yields of water with desalinated water


E. Thermal 

I. Still under development and testing. The results reached does not allow to be optimistic thinking to  achieve a thermal storage able to store energy for a long period 

Ii. As its name indicates, this storage only allows to work with renewable technologies thermal of high temperature (CCP, Solar towers, etc.)
Iii. Low returns and significant investment and maintenance costs

 

Liquid nitrogen

I. Even at the R & D stage, there is no reliable data available on the goodness of this system
Ii. Available only for large potential, of the order of MW, so it is not feasible to market these products for scarce kW, that is, for offshore storage in small consumers



     2016©Alberto A. Santana Ramírez


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